MicrophoneTopic: The Production, Distribution and Reception of Culture


What is cultural production?

Production of Culture, using Paul Hirsch (1972), is a systematic dissemination of ideas (Culture) from the creator (technical subsystem) through cultural object(Records, Low Budget Films, Popular Books) with the aid of managerial and institutional subsystem (organization and Media respectively) to the consumer for the purpose of creating effect in them (consumer).


Element of cultural production

  1. Producer
  2. Objects
  3. Personnel
  4. Channel
  5. Consumer


What is Cultural Object?

Objects that the creator/producer uses to affect consumer behavior. E.g Records, Masquerade, Bible, Popular Books, Low Budget Films etc.


Features of Cultural Objects: Page 75 and 76

  1. Demand uncertainty
  2. Cheap technology
  3. Over supply of would be cultural creators


Types of feedback in Culture Industry System: Page 78

  1. From Media: through airtime, Reviews, General Media Attention
  2. From the consumer: by sales of Tickets, CDs, Books, Sales of Jukebox plays, Sales of related products


What are the interpretations of the types of feedback in Culture Industry System or purpose of feedback? Page 78

  1. To assess the popularity of an artist
  2. To Assess the effectiveness of their promotional activities
  3. To assess the implications for similar future production


What are the strategies that the managerial subsystem uses to manage innovation? Page 74

  1. maintaining contact personnel at both boundaries
  2. overproduction of products coupled with the recognition that most will fail
  3. unremitting attempts to influence or co-opt media gatekeeper


What are the ways of promoting production companies products? Page 78

  • Indicate more product homogeneity than actually exist
  • Promote lines and emphasize the homogeneity of the lines by giving each new title a number


Apparatus for Production and Distribution of Culture. Page

  • Advertising
  • Co-opting Mass Media
  • Creation of situation that brings potential consumer in contact with cultural object


Culture Industry System

  • A model in cultural production developed by Paul Hirsch (1972) that works to regulate and package innovation and thus to transform creativity into predictable, marketable packages.


Role of cultural market in Culture Industry System: Page

  • It serve as intermediary between cultural creators and cultural consumers
  • It introduces the consumer to new culture by emphasizing familiar songs and recent hits


Nature of cultural market: Page

  • Competition
  • Favouritism
  • Over Imposition/Replacement, Flexibility (social change)


What is cultural Change/Creative

  • Shifting from the use of one cultural object to another one which is said to be preferable by the consumers through the institutional subsystem (Media)


What are the factors that bring about cultural change?

  • Modernization
  • Urbanization
  • War
  • Pestilence
  • Economic Upheaval
  • Social Reconfiguration


What are the effects/implications of cultural change?

  • Production of new cultural Market
  • Production of new ideologies and genres
  • Production of new cultural forms
  • Enlightenment of consumers on the changing world


Aims of CMA

  • Preservation and promotion of their musical style


Aim of ACE

  • To fight the dilution of the country sound


Cultural Integration:

The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system


What shapes what we pay attention to, what we get emotional about, and what meanings we draw from environmental signals?

  • our social minds


“horizon of expectations”

  • When a reader interprets a text/media on the basis of how it fits/challenges her expectations


What are some things that pop culture?

  • TV shows;
  • Magazines;
  • Fashions;
  • Wisdom,
  • Common sense,
  • Values of “the people”


Reevaluation of pop culture consisted of:

  • examined it in search of hidden meanings that had been accessible to its recipients but missed by academics and other elites
  • The recipient is seen not only decoding meanings to which elites were oblivious to, but also constructing their own meanings


What increased size market?

  • Cultural differentiation


  1. Draw the chain of culture Industry system of Paul Hirsch (1972)
  2. What do you understand by the following?
  • Boundary Spanners
  • Project-Based Organization
  • Cultural Market

Media Gate Keepers


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